In last month’s article, I discussed the less serious infringements (Shido). This article will address the more serious infringements known as Hansoku-make (grave infringements group). A grave infringement receives a penalty of direct Hansoku-make. This means that the contestant is disqualified and excluded from the tournament, and the contest. What constitutes Hansoku-Make?

The following actions or inactions will result in a Hansoku-Make:

– Applying Kawazu-gake. (Throwing your opponent by winding one leg around the opponent’s leg, while facing more or less in the same direction as the opponent and falling backwards onto him). Even if the thrower twists/turns during the throwing action, this should still be considered “Kawazu-gake” and be penalised. Techniques such as Osoto-gari, Ouchi-gari, and Uchi-mata where the foot/leg is entwined with opponent’s leg are allowed.

– Applying Kansetsu-waza (joint locks) anywhere other than to the elbow joint.

– Lifting your opponent who is lying on the mat off of it and driving him/her back into the mat.

– Reaping the opponent’s supporting leg from the inside when the opponent is applying a technique such as Harai-goshi etc.

– Disregarding the Referee’s instructions.

– Making unnecessary calls, remarks or gestures derogatory to the opponent or Referee during the contest.

– Making any action which may endanger or injure the opponent especially the opponent’s neck or spinal vertebrae, or may be against the spirit of Judo.

– Falling directly to the Tatami (mat) while applying or attempting to apply techniques such as Udehishigi-waki-gatame. (To attempt such throws as Harai-goshi, Uchi-mata, etc., with only one hand gripping the opponent’s lapel from a position resembling Ude-hishigi-waki-gatame (in which the wrist of the opponent is trapped beneath the thrower’s armpit) and deliberately falling, face down, onto the Tatami is likely to cause injury and will be penalized. No intent to throw an opponent cleanly onto his back is a dangerous action and will be treated in the same way as Ude-hishigi-waki-gatame.)

– “Diving” headfirst, onto the Tatami by bending forward and downward while performing or attempting to perform techniques such as Uchimata, Harai-goshi, etc. or to fall directly backwards while performing or attempting to perform techniques such as Kata-guruma whether standing or kneeling.

– Falling backwards intentionally when the other contestant is clinging to his back and when either contestant has control of the other’s movement.

– Wearing a hard or metallic object (covered or not).

The foregoing actions will end a judo match instantly. (Remember that four shido in one match will result in Hansoku-make). They may also result in serious injury to you or your opponent. Judo is a sport of honor and integrity. Knowing what is legal and what is not will help you keep your end of the bargain.

Self defense techniques for women,
Types of martial arts